Firstly, there is a new community through a new covenant (see Mark 14.22-25). Just like the gathering at Sinai that had represented the beginning of corporate life for Israel, so the meal that Jesus shared with his disciples was symbolic of community in covenant that is sealed by blood. Except that this time it isn't the blood of animals, but of Jesus himself. The very essence of the new covenant community is Jesus on the cross: "we who are many, are one body in Christ, for we all share in the one bread."
Secondly, there is the task beyond Jerusalem and even Israel. Israel-renewed-around-Jesus can now achieve its original purpose. Therefore, Jesus commanded his twelve to go and gather all nations to him (see Luke 22.44-48).
However, many Israelites also rejected this vision for God's people (see Acts 13.46 and 18.5-6). And it's the apostolic reflection on this issue that we shall turn to next.